What’s in a Japanese name? Introduction to how Japanese names work
Hi! Welcome to this introduction to Japanese names. I’m very happy that you are interested in Japanese names. In this article I’ll tell you the basics of how they work. Japanese names are so unique and cool, and have many special features. I hope you’ll enjoy!
First of all, which comes first, the surname or the given name?
In Japanese the surname comes before the given name. So, the great animation director Hayao Miyazaki is referred to Miyazaki Hayao in Japan. Miyazaki is his surname and Hayao is his given name. Many Japanese people reverse the order when communicating with non-Japanese people, which makes it difficult to be sure which name is which. Most Japanese people have one surname and one given name, and don’t have middle names. (People with foreign parentage may have middle names.)
Characters used for Japanese names
Japanese names are usually written in kanji, and some names are written in hiragana or katakana. These are the three character sets used in the Japanese language.
Kanji: Kanji characters are like ideographic symbols. Each kanji symbolizes its own meaning, and has several different pronunciations. Kanji is Chinese in origin but the usage and pronunciation of kanji have been changed in order to fit the Japanese language. Because each kanji has several possible pronunciations, when you see only the name written in kanji, you don’t know how the name is pronounced.
Hiragana: Hiragana characters are the basic Japanese phonetic script. They are like alphabets, so each hiragana itself has no meaning. There are about 50 basic hiragana characters.
Katakana: There is another set of phonetic script called katakana. Katakana characters are mainly used for words imported from foreign languages. Like hiragana, there are about 50 basic characters. Hiragana and katakana represent the same set of sounds and represent every sound in the Japanese language.
Surname is normally inherited from the father, and the number of surnames in Japan is very, very high. Most women take the surname of their husband, and few women keep their maiden name after marriage. The fascinating thing is that so many of Japanese surnames are derived from nature, which suggests how much Japanese people have loved and honored nature since the ancient times. Here are some examples.
Let me explain the two kanji used for “Miyazaki.” The kanji for Miya means “shrine, palace ” and the kanji for zaki means “cape, peninsula.” Kurosawa means “black swamp.” The kanji for Kuro means “black, dark” and sawa means “swamp, marsh.” And Suzuki means “bell tree.” The kanji for Suzu means “bell” and ki means “tree, wood.”
Like these examples, the vast majority of surnames consist of two kanji characters. Most surnames have one to three kanji.
The coolest feature about Japanese given names is that you can be very creative in choosing them, or rather, creating them. Even though the kanji characters which may be used in names are regulated, there are many thousands of kanji to choose from! Like surnames, so many given names consist of two kanji. Most given names have one to three kanji. I’ll tell you more about how creative you can be in choosing a Japanese given name in my next article!
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